Types of Cancer

Cancer Tumours are generally named after the body part where the cancer originated. Its name does not change even if the cancer spreads to another part of body. For instance, if breast cancer spreads (metastasizes) to the lungs, it is called as a breast cancer and is treated as a breast cancer.

Cancers of different organs show difference in signs and symptoms, their pace of growth and reaction on different treatments. So, it is very important to diagnose cancer accurately to begin the specialized treatment immediately.

Cancer of the Cervix

Cervix is the neck like tissue of the uterus (womb) which serves as a connection between the uterus and vagina. Cancer of the cervix is the second most common type of gynecological cancer in women. Cervical cancer can be prevented and cured in its early stages because it can be diagnosed in regular physical examinations using the Pap smear test.

Carcinoma in situ is a pre-malignant lesion on the cervix that has a cure rate of 100%.Stage 1 cancer of the cervix has a cure rate of 80% to 90%.

Most of the time cervical cancer originates from the surface tissue of the cervix and then spreads to involve the entire cervix. Invasive cancer of the cervix is a rare kind of cancer because most of cases are diagnosed in the pre-invasive stage. Some people have invasive cancer only if they do not go for a Pap smear test., or not had one for many years. A few cases occur despite having been screened.

Genital cancer - Male genital system

Male genital glands also known as gonads produce the male reproductive cells known as spermatozoa and the male hormones called testosterone.

Each testis is surrounded by a thick fibrous capsule and is composed of many small,thin, coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules. Testicular cancers usually grow from cells in the gonads that actually create the sperm. Tumours of both testicles are rare and they tend to occur in younger men. Testicular cancers are malignant cancer. Death due to testicular cancer is very uncommon but can cause many other diseases. Early diagnosis of testicular cancer can result in complete cure with the help of right treatment options. There have been very few cases of benign cancer of the testis, so every lump on the testes must be checked immediately.

Hodgkin's Disease

Hodgkin’s disease is an uncommon type of cancer which is caused due to the malignant cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell. It is a type of lymphoma which has approximately 90% cure rate.

Kidney

Kidneys are two bean shaped organs which are four and a half inches long situated against the posterior abdominal wall of the vertebral column.

  •  Kidneys produce and eliminate urine through a complex filtration network and re-absorption system which comprises more than two million nephrons
  •  Kidneys remove water in the form of urine and pass the filtered water to the blood plasma, thus maintaining the water balance of the body
  •  Having only a kidney is not a medical condition.
  •  Hormones produced by the pituitary gland control the function of the kidneys in regulating water content of the body.
  •  Cancer of the kidneys constitutes approximately 4% of all cancers.
  •  It affects men three times more than women.
  •  It affects people falling under the age group of 40 to 75 years.
  •  If diagnosed early and treated properly the survival rate of the patients is seventy-five percent.

Liver

Cancer of the liver is also called hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma

  •  Liver is the body’s largest and one of the most complex internal organs
  •  It weighs up to 4lbs and is situated at right upper quadrant of the abdomen
  •  Liver performs numerous biochemical functions such as removing toxins from the blood and produces bile, cholesterol, digestive enzymes and complex proteins
  •  Liver also stores glycogen which is then converted into glucose
  •  It is one of the rarest of rare cancer

Lymphomas

The lymphatic system is a network of small vessels called "lymphatics" which resemble blood

  •  Lymphatics pass fluid from the tissues of the body to the bloodstream
  •  It helps the body to defend itself against infection
  •  Most of the cells which circulate in the lymphatic system are white blood cells called lymphocytes.
  •  When a lymphoma develops, the malignant cell is called a lymphocyte
  •  Lymphatic tissue is found in many organs of the body, particularly the spleen, liver, bone, skin, marrow and intestines
  •  It is the seventh most common cause of cancer deaths
  •  The fifth most common type of cancer diagnosed in men or women

Mouth

  •  Mouth or oral cavity includes the lips, lining of the cheek or buccal mucosa, the gums the hard palate and the floor of the mouth
  •  The anterior 2/3rd or the mobile part of the tongue is considered a part of the oral cavity.
  •  Malignant tumours can occur anywhere on the mucosal lining of the mouth or in the numerous small salivary glands that help to lubricate the mouth

Myeloma

  •  Myelomas are cancers of plasma cells
  •  Plasma cells are special white blood cells derived from maturation of B lymphocytes
  •  The function of plasma cells is to produce antibodies to fight infection
  •  The major problem caused by myeloma is usually bone destruction resulting in pain or collapse
  •  Other common problems include low blood counts, anaemia, kidney problems and repeated infections
  •  In myeloma and other plasma cell diseases, one of the plasma cells becomes malignant and begins to proliferate independently. This result in the overproduction of specific protein products called immunoglobulins (antibodies) Myelomas grow from bone marrow and affect both bone and other bone marrow cells - red, white and platelet.

Mycosis Fungoides

  •  It is a slow growing cancer
  •  It affects the skin of the patient
  •  It remains on the skin for years before spreading to other parts of the body
  •  It is very difficult to diagnose because symptoms are similar to other less skin diseases
  •  Only in advanced stage there are enough lymphoma cells concentrated on the skin to make a confirmed diagnosis with the help of a pathologist
  • For this reason, even though symptoms may have been noted for years and the patient may even have been under the care of a skin specialist, it is not normally diagnosed in people under 40

Pancreas

  •  Pancreas is an important gland that has to do with digestion of food elements and metabolism of sugar in the body
  •  It is situated across the upper abdomen between peritoneum and stomach
  •  Pancreas produces insulin, manufactured by cells "islets of Langerhans” which helps in utilization of carbohydrate (sugar) by the body
  •  Accounts for 2% of all malignant cancers
  •  It develops among people of age group 50-70 years old
  •  It is more frequent among men than women.
  •  Smoking is a risk factor for pancreatic cancers

Penis

  •  Penis is the external male organ of urination and coitus
  •  Cancer of the penis if diagnosed early and treated has 85% - 90% of five year survival rate
  •  The five year survival rate decreases to 30%-40% if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes of the groin
  •  If you find any lesion on the penis it should be checked by the doctor
  • Cancer of the penis is one of the rarest cancers. Premalignant: Erythroplasia of Queyrat - squamous cell carcinoma in situ of penis

Testicular Cancer

Male genital glands also known as gonads produce the male reproductive cells known as spermatozoa and the male hormones called testosterone.

Each testis is surrounded by a thick fibrous capsule and is composed of many small,thin, coiled tubes called seminiferous tubules. Testicular cancers usually grow from cells in the gonads that actually create the sperm. Tumours of both testicles are rare and they tend to occur in younger men. Testicular cancers are malignant cancer. Death due to testicular cancer is very uncommon but can cause many other diseases. Early diagnosis of testicular cancer can result in complete cure with the help of right treatment options. There have been very few cases of benign cancer of the testis, so every lump on the testes must be checked immediately.